Untreated urban sewage is one of the most common causes of river pollution in India, and the same applies to Assam...
Digital Desk: Untreated urban sewage is one of the most common causes of river pollution in India, and the same applies to Assam.
As per a report from the Government of India, the rivers Bharalu and Kolong are two of the most polluted rivers in the country. The Guwahati city sewerage pollutes the river Bharalu, whereas Nagaon town sewerage pollutes the river Kolong.
The report stated that rivers are vital resources for civilizations and must be regarded as vibrant ecological entities. "They provide a variety of ecosystem services for us and are essential to our culture and civilization. Rivers are under increasing threat as a result of rising urbanization, industry, and population growth. The situation is exacerbated by the over-extraction of water for irrigation, industrial, and drinking needs. This necessitates the protection, conservation, and revitalization of these unique resources," according to the report.
According to the report, untreated municipal sewage is the most significant source of river contamination, followed by industry and other non-point sources of pollution. Pollution sources are broadly classified into two categories: point sources, which are organized sources of pollution where the pollution load can be measured, such as surface drains carrying municipal sewage or industrial effluents, sewage pumping stations and sewerage systems, trade effluents from industries, and so on; and non-point sources, which are non-measurable sources of pollution, such as run-off from agricultural fields carrying chemicals and fertilizers.
Out of the total measurable pollution in rivers from various point sources, municipal sewage from towns located along river banks accounts for approximately 75%, with industrial effluents accounting for the remaining 25%.
While industrial pollution accounts for only 25% of total pollution, it poses a significant threat to rivers due to higher concentrations of pollutants and a complicated profile due to the inclusion of chemicals, metals, and other harmful compounds.
According to a survey done by the Central Pollution Control Board, only a few cities have facilities to process municipal garbage, and most cities and towns have not developed appropriate infrastructure, resulting in untreated water flowing into rivers.
To address the issue, untreated sewage should not be discharged into rivers or other recipient systems, and cities should build suitable Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). If effluent is disposed of on land, in a river, or in any other water body, the treated effluent must meet the specified standards.